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Internet Phenomena/Trends

Note: This is an article that is going to evolve, I am still playing with ideas in my head...

Have you ever stopped to think about Internet technologies that we utilize everyday, and how they affect our lives and interactions with others.  Anyone with Internet access can find a plethora of online content and other types of information available to them.

For small businesses or content providers, the Internet can be a great democratizer of knowledge and commerce.  Anyone can now publish content or sell their products and services to an potential audience of millions of viewers and consumers.  For large businesses or content providers they can extend your brand, interact with your customers in ways never possible before, or collect very accurate marketing and demographic data.

Unfortunately there is also a dark side to the Internet, visitors will not always find what they're looking for, expected or in some cases wanted.  Along with all the great things out there there's a lot of bad stuff too.  If you visit the wrong web site and your computer's defenses are not in place (e.g.: applications, system, and malware protection updated and a firewall running), you can have your computer taken over. 

I recently started thinking about all the previous, current, and future trends that are unfolding before us every day,  Most of the subjects I listed can be an article or book all by itself. I only touch on each subject very briefly, and provide a link to a Wikipedia article for more information.

Instead of using single quotes, I like to use related videos that I have for a subject I am talking about.  Here is an excerpt about the video: "What happens when material things become free? Long Tail author and Wired magazine editor Chris Anderson examines new models of wealth distribution and claims we’re moving from economies of scarcity to an age of abundance."

Chris Anderson - PopTech 2006

Most of the technologies listed below are just electronic representations of services that we use in the physical world, while others are digital extensions of existing concepts. 

Business
  • Automated Online Assistant - A program that uses artificial intelligence to provide customer service or other assistance on a website. (more information see Dialog System)
  • Crowd Funding - The collective cooperation, attention and trust by people who network and pool their money and other resources together, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations.
  • Domain Names - A web's site name (e.g. www.jasonsavitt.info) are the equivalent of real-estate on the internet, some of these name are worth millions of dollars depending on the popularity of the word.  During the late 1990s there was a "gold rush" of sorts to grab all the good domain names and resell them.
  • E-commerce/Online Store - In the late 1990's buying and selling products and services using the Web got popularized and since has become a critical part of our everyday lives.  All types of online stores are being created to allow consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet.
    • Examples: Amazon, Buy.com, etc.
  • Electronic Money - Money or scrip which is only exchanged electronically. Typically, this involves the use of computer networks, the internet and digital stored value systems.
  • Employment Website - Several of these web sites are designed to allow employers to post job requirements for a position to be filled and are commonly known as job boards.
    • Examples: Monster.com, Dice.com, etc.
  • Health-Related Sites -
  • Internet Service Provider - A company that provides customers access to the Internet, generally utilizing copper, wireless or fiber optic connection technologies.
  • Metasearch Engines - Sends user requests to several other search engines and/or databases and aggregates the results into a single list and displays them.
    • Examples: Dogpile
  • Microfinance - Provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services.
  • Micropayments - A financial transaction involving a very small sum of money and usually one that occurs online.
  • Near Field Communication (NFC) - Allows for simplified transactions, data exchange, and wireless connections between two devices in proximity to each other, usually by no more than a few centimeters. It is expected to become a widely used system for making payments by smartphone in the United States.
  • Online Auction - Participants bid for products and services over the Internet.  eBay currently dominates this market segment.
    • Examples: eBay
  • Online Classified Ads - A form of online advertising which may be sold or distributed free of charge.  Craigslist currently dominates this market segment.
    • Examples: Craigslist
  • Online Grocer -  A grocery store that allows private individuals and businesses to purchase grocery products online, and have the products delivered to their home or business.
  • Online Payments - Allows payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to traditional paper methods such as checks and money orders.
    • Examples:Paypal, Google Checkout, etc.
  • Online Reputation - A factor in online community where trust is important, so reputation can be considered as a component of the identity as defined by others.
  • Web Map/Local Search - Finding businesses or other points of interest based on a specific location.  Lets say you're visiting Eiffel tower and you want to find a local restaurant to eat dinner.
    • Examples: Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc.
  • Online Banking - Allows a customer to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their bank, or other financial institution.
    • Examples: Citibank, Chase, etc.
  • Photo Printing - Converting digital photo into traditional photographs (e.g. SnapFish, Shutterfly, etc.)
  • Personalization - Tailoring a web site or application's user experience to an individual based on settings or usage patterns.
    • Note: In the late 1990's Netscape was one of the first companies to start offering personalized start pages called "My Netscape" that started a whole movement for a few years of other companies copying the idea and later calling themselves "Portals".  Google closed down its own project in 2012 called iGoogle.
  • Price Comparison Service - Allows individuals to see different lists of prices for specific products from different retailers from whom users can buy.
  • Same Day Delivery: Amazon started a trend of being able to offer "Same Day Delivery" to local storage locker locations in several cities utilizing different retailers (more info).
  • Telecommuting - Being able to work from a remote location outside an organization while being able to securely access local network resources (e.g. file shares, databases, etc.)
  • Travel Booking Website - A dedicated web site focused on the booking of travel, including flights, hotels, rental cars, and more.
    • Examples: Expedia, Kayak, etc.
  • Web Portal: A web site that brings together information from diverse sources in a unified way. Usually, each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information (a portlet); often, the user can configure which ones to display.

Marketing

  • Affiliate Marketing - A marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts.
  • Data Matrix (aka QR Codes) - A two-dimensional matrix barcode consisting of black and white "cells" or modules arranged in either a square or rectangular pattern. Commonly scanned via a cellphone camera, can contain URL, text, another messages.
  • Deal of the Day - A web-based business model in which a single type of product is offered for sale for a period of 24 hours.  Woot.com popularized the concept in 2004. In 2008 Groupon popularized a "group coupon" model, the way it works if enough people buy into an offer then the offer is made available to everyone.
    • Examples:Groupon, Living Social, etc.
  • Email Marketing/SPAM - Email Marketing is the use of email to promote and sell products and services.  While SPAM is unwanted electronic communications (generally email, but can come in other forms) from a business that in which an individual has no previous relationship.  Because of email marketing and spam, the "opt-in" and "opt-out" concepts were popularized to create a form of trust between the customer and business.
  • Internet Advertising - The promotion of products or services over the Internet, generally using banner or pop-up ads.
    • Examples: Google Adwords
  • Internet Marketing - The promotion of products or services over the Internet using various forms of web technologies (e,g. search engines, online advertising, web analytics, etc.)
  • Mobile Application Marketing - Creating a mobile applications to promote or sell products for a business, web site, or specialized group.
  • Price Comparison - Price comparison applications that allowed you take pictures of products or scan bar codes to shop for better deals.
  • Social Network Marketing - Using social networking site to promote or sell products for a business, web site, or specialized group.
  • Toolbar Search - Creating a browser toolbar to promote or sell products for a business, web site, or specialized group.
  • Viral Marketing - Use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer viruses.
  • Web Site Analytics - The measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.
    • Examples:Google Analytics

Content/Media
  • Blogs - Generally maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
    • Examples:Blogger, Tumbler, etc.
  • Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a large distributed system of servers deployed in multiple data centers across the Internet. The goal of a CDN is to serve content to end-users with high availability and high performance.
  • Creative Commons - Expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and share.
  • Creative 404 Pages: Some web sites have create funny 404 pages that has started a competition of sorts between sites (more info).
  • Digital Right Management - A method of encryption or other means (e.g. digital watermarking, electronic anti-piracy technology, etc.) used to protect copyrighted content from being duplicated illegally.
  • Digital Media Players - This technology comes in several forms, such as applications, web sites, and hand-held devices.  Apple popularized the concept of selling legally licensed digital media content through iTunes.
    • Examples: iTunes, Windows Media Player, etc.
  • Dynamic Content - In the early days of the Web, only static web pages were available for viewing, then people learned how dynamically build web pages on the fly so that they could personalize content for each visitor viewing it.
  • E-cards - Similar to a postcard or greeting card, with the primary difference being that it is created using digital media instead of paper or other traditional materials.
  • eBooks - The electronic publishing and distribution of book content.  There are several dedicated devices for the reading of ebooks (e.g. Kindle, Nook, etc.).
  • Electronic Software Distribution - Delivering content without the use of physical media, typically by downloading via the internet directly to a consumer's device.
  • File Sharing - The electronic distributing of stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images, and video), documents, or electronic books.
  • Image Search - a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images.
  • Mashups - A Web page or application that uses and combines data, presentation or functionality from two or more sources to create new services.
  • Memes - Identifies ideas, behaviors, or styles that spreads from person to person within a culture.  Generally when I video or other type of information goes viral, and spread quickly throughout the Internet.
  • MP3 - A popular digital format for storing and playing back audio.
  • Massive Online Open Courses [MOOC] - a type of online course aimed at large-scale participation and open access via the web. (also see e-learning)
  • Online Magazine - An online magazines distributed through the World Wide Web call themselves webzines (or ezines).
  • Open Source - Software that can redistributed or rewritten free of charge, usually created by volunteers.
    • Examples:Linux, Open Office, Gimp, etc.
  • Podcasts - A series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication.
  • RSS - An XML file that contains an aggregated list of headlines, descriptions, pictures and links to a content providers web site.  These files can be rendered by an RSS reader application (e,g. Google Reader).
  • Search Engines - Web sites and search engines have a long history with other, sometime symbiotic and other times parasitic.  Many search engines have come and gone, while others have become so large they're now a verb.  Before search engines it worth noting that there were humanly maintained Internet Directories, such as Yahoo and DMOZ.  A little trivia about Yahoo's name "The name Yahoo! is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle," but Filo and Yang insist they selected the name because they liked the general definition of a yahoo: "rude, unsophisticated, uncouth."" (source)
    • Examples: Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc.
  • Streaming Media - Content (audio or video) that digitally broadcasted to an end-users delivered by a media providers.
    • Examples: Hulu, Netflix, etc.
  • Streaming Music - Music content that digitally broadcasted to an end-users delivered by a media providers.  In 2012 there was explosive growth in this category from several companies, such Rdio, Spotify, and Pandora (one of the older services).
    • Examples:Pandora, Spotify, etc.
  • Tag (metadata) - A non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (also see Tag Cloud)
  • Tag Cloud - A visual representation for text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, or to visualize free form text (also see Tag).
  • Web Portal - A web site that brings together information from diverse sources in a unified way.
  • Web Sites - Most people first experience with the Internet is with a Web site, which is a collection of related web pages containing images, videos or other digital content.
  • Video Sharing/Picture - People are constantly generating new content and sharing it.
    • Examples: Youtube, Vimeo, etc.
  • URL Shortening - A technique on the World Wide Web in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter in length and still direct to the required page.
  • Web Television - An emerging genre of digital entertainment that is distinct from traditional broadcast television.
  • Webcomics - Comics written exclusively for the web. (e.g. XKCD, Diesel Sweeties, etc.)
  • Wikis - A website that allows the creation and editing of web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor.
    • Examples:Wikipedia, Mediawiki, etc.

Social
  • Collaborative Consumption - A shift away from 'hyper-consumption', to an economic model of sharing, swapping, bartering, trading or renting that have been enabled by advances in online platforms.
    • Examples:
  • Collaboration Tools/Videoconferencing - process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, using tools like web sites (e.g. SharePoint), video conference, screen-sharing, IM, etc.
    • Examples:Go2Meeting, TeamViewer, etc.
  • Crowdsourcing - Jeff Howe coined the term to describe an open call to an undefined group of people that gather to perform a tasks, solve a problems or contribute ideas.
    • Examples:
  • Cyber-bullying - The use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others.
  • Cyberstalking - The use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization.
  • E-learning - Electronically supported learning and teaching. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. 
  • Electronic Medical Record - A computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital and doctor's surgery.
  • Flash Mobs - A group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place to perform an activity for a brief time and then disperse.  This is often done for often for the purposes of entertainment or satire.
  • Group Text - Being able to send one message to several different people generally via SMS at the same time.
  • Video Chat - An online chat website that pairs people from around the world together for webcam-based conversations.
    • Examples: Chatroulette.com, Airtime.com, etc.
  • Internet Suicide (also see Web 2.0 Suicide Machine) - A service that helps users tired of social networks (such as: Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn and Twitter), to "commit suicide in social networks," by automatically "removing their private content and friend relationships," (but without deleting or deactivating their accounts).
  • Internet Troll - Someone who posts inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community, such as an online discussion forum, chat room, or blog, with the primary intent of provoking readers into an emotional response
  • Machine Translation: A field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another.
  • Online Dating - A dating system which allows individuals to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal relationship.
    • Examples: Match.com, eHarmony, etc.
  • Rating sites - A website designed for users to vote on or rate people, content, or other things. Rating sites are typically organized around attributes such as physical appearance, body parts, voice, personality, etc. They may also be devoted to the subjects' occupational ability, for example teachers, professors, lawyers, doctors, etc.
    • Examples:HotorNot.com
  • Sexting - Act of sending sexually explicit messages or photographs, primarily between mobile phones.
  • Social Bookmarking - A method for Internet users to organize, store, manage and search for bookmarks of resources online.
    • Examples: Digg.com, StumbleUpon, etc.
  • Social Network - These are killer application tomorrow that can overthrow them.  Some governments now fear these services because they allow people organize quickly.
    • Examples: Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, etc.
  • Usenet - A worldwide distributed Internet discussion system.
  • Virtual world - an online community that takes the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects.
    • Examples: SecondLife
  • Web Forums - An online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

Communications
  • Dark Internet - Refers to any or all unreachable network hosts on the Internet.
  • Email - Like IM email dates back to the mid-1960s and traces its to CTSS.  For a few years there was a type of "free Email wars", where companies where trying to attract as many new users as they could.  Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo are all still innovating their service offering, by adding new features and service on a regular basis.
    • Examples:HotMail, Gmail, Yahoo Mail.
  • Hash Tags - ###
  • Instant Messaging - This feature was originally popularized by the America Online (AOL) service.  Although per Wikipedia it first appeared on multi-user operating systems like CTSS and Multics in the mid-1960s.
    • Examples:AOL, MSN, GoogleTalk
  • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) - A form of real-time Internet text messaging (chat) or synchronous conferencing.
  • IPv6 - Next generation TCP/IP protocol that will replace IPv4 which is currently the most popular protocol on the Internet
  • Peer-to-Peer File Sharing: Distributing large amounts of data without the need of a central server to host the information. (also see BitTorrent)
    • BitTorrent - A peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used for distributing large amounts of data.
  • Push Technology - Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server. It is contrasted with pull technology, where the request for the transmission of information is initiated by the receiver or client.
    • Examples:PointCast.com
  • VoIP (Voice Over IP) - Growing up I remember looking in the phone book or calling the operator to find out how a call would cost to make across the city.  Now I only worry about paying for the call when calling outside the country.
    • Examples:Skype, Google Voice, magicJack, etc.

Security
  • Computer Crime - Any crime that involves a computer and a network.  Attackers are getting more sophisticated all the time, they're evolving exist technologies (e.g. malware) and techniques (e.g. social engineering), and creating new ones.
  • Digital Certificates/Signing - an electronic document which uses a digital signature to bind a public key with an identity — information such as the name of a person or an organization, their address, and so forth. The certificate can be used to verify that a public key belongs to an individual.
  • Password Management - An application that helps a user organize passwords and PIN codes, stores your confidential information in an encrypted database.  With all the different accounts that most people have across all the sites that they use.  A password manager becomes a critical tool.
  • Federated Identity - A signal user's authentication process across multiple Internet based web sites and services.
  • Digital Wallet - Allows users to make electronic commerce transactions quickly and securely.
  • Multi-Factor Authentication - Part of the the Defense in depth approach of "Security In Layers" applied to authentication.  This type of authentication goes beyond user name and password (e.g. something you know), it requires that you have token (e.g. something you have) or it could biometrics (e.g. something you are).
  • Browser Finger Printing - A compact summary of software and hardware settings collected from a remote computing device to uniquely identify that device across the Internet.
  • CAPTCHA - A challenge-response test used by web site and application as an attempt to ensure that the response is not generated by a computer.
  • Electronic Espionage - There are generally two forms of electronic espionage, economic or industrial.  Economic espionage is conducted or orchestrated by governments and is international in scope.  Industrial or corporate espionage occurs between companies or corporations.
  • Electronic Warfare - An action involving the use of electronic attacks to disable or impede enemy information technology systems.
  • Encryption - The ability to scramble and de-scramble information using a private key known only to a specific authorized individual or individuals.
  • Information Privacy - The ability to have knowledge of how a business will use a person's personal and private data, so that they can make informed decisions to share it.
  • Malware - malicious software that consists of programming (code, scripts, active content, and other software) designed to disrupt or deny operation, gather information that leads to loss of privacy or exploitation, gain unauthorized access to system resources, and other abusive behavior.
  • Proxy/Anonymizer: In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.  An anonymous proxy server (sometimes called a web proxy) generally attempts to anonymize web surfing.
  • Reputation Systems - A rating system that allows potential buyers and sellers to make informed decisions about doing business with other individuals or small companies for whom they don't have personal knowledge or relationships with. 
    • Examples: eBay popularized this technology.
  • Social Engineering - The act of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information, rather than by breaking in or using technical cracking techniques.
  • VPN (Virtual Private Network): extends a private network across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if they were an integral part of the private network with all the functionality, security and management policies of the private network. 

Mobile (Smartphone)
  • Augmented Reality - Overlaying computer data or graphics on real world video from the devices camera.
  • Application (App) Stores - Buy applications for your computer or mobile device from an application or website for that platform.
  • Freemium Applications - ###
  • Image Recognition: Machine vision is that of determining whether or not the image data contains some specific object, feature, or activity. 
  • In-App Purchases - ###
  • Location-Based Service - Information or entertainment service, accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and utilizing the ability to make use of the geographical position of the mobile device
  • Location-Based Social Networking - Allows you "check-in" to physical location in the real world, thus allowing them share their locations with their friends and allow business to promote sales by creating special offers.
    • Examples: FourSquare, Gowalla, etc
  • Mobile Applications - Applications specifically created for a mobile device platform.
  • Mobile Gaming - A video game played on a mobile device, such as a phone, smartphone, PDA, handheld computer or portable media player.
  • Mobile Local Search - Finding business or other locations of interest based on your current location.
  • Mobile Payment - An alternative payment method. Instead of paying with cash, check or credit cards, a consumer can use a mobile phone to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods.  This subject includes the use of NFC (Near Field Communications) and RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification).
  • Mobile Web - Web site content that has been specifically designed and formatted for mobile phone viewing.
  • Wireless Hotspots/Internet Cafes - Several different business such as coffee shop, restaurants, and hotels now offers some type of free or fee-based wireless access.
  • Voice Search - To search or perform actions based on words or commands using natural speech recognition.

Computing/Programming
  • AJAX - A group of interrelated web development methods used on the client-side to create interactive web applications.
  • Cloud Computing - Virtualized computing, application, and storage solutions made available by Cloud service providers.
    • Examples: Salesforce.com, Office365, etc.
  • Bookmarklets - JavaScript stored as the URL of a bookmark in a web browser or as a hyperlink on a web page.
  • Browser Extension/Add-ons - a computer program that extends the functionality of a web browser.
    • Examples: ActiveX, Firefox Extensions, etc.
  • Browser Privacy
    • Browser Cookies -
    • Web bug
    • Pop-up Windows
    • Super Cookie - Unlike browser cookie, a super cookie is a Flash-based cookie that is stored in a different location on the computer than a standard browser cookie, and can be much larger than the 4K allotted the browser cookie.
  • Browser Wars - The browser wars that raged in late 1990 are still being waged today.  While Internet Explorer holds the current crown, its current crown up for grabs because other browsers are gaining market-share.
    • Examples:Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.
  • Distributed Computing/Grid Computing - Leveraging unused computer cycles from millions of computers across the web for scientific or other types of advancement.
    • Examples: Folding@Home, SETI@Home, etc.
  • Embedded Content -  Flash is currently the dominate technology for embedding content, but it has the potential of be replaced by HTML 5.
    • Examples:Java, Flash, Windows Media, etc.
  • Home Energy Monitoring: A device that displays costs of energy used, and can estimate greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Note: Both Google and Microsoft abandoned their power monitoring platforms
  • HTML 5 - The next generation of the HTML that offers several enhancements, including improve language and multimedia support.
  • Internet File Hosting/Backup - Designed to host static content, typically large files that are not web pages.
  • Mesh Networks - A resilient computer network, where computers combine and share their wireless networking capabilities to create a larger unified network.
  • Linux - Without the Internet, I personally don't think it would have been possible for Linux to expand like it has.  It all started with a simple post, and became an operating system that competes with Microsoft and Apple for market-share.  Trivia, in 2005 both Oracle and IBM help legitimized Linux in the enterprise by endorsing the operating system.
  • Single Sign-On: a property of access control of multiple related, but independent software systems.
    • Examples: OpenID, Facebook, etc.
  • Social Graph - In the Internet context is a sociogram, a graph that depicts personal relations of internet users. It has been referred to as "the global mapping of everybody and how they're related".
  •  Trusted DNS Providers: These are public DNS providers that focus on security, that provided domain name look-up services instead relying untrusted DNS sources.
    • Example: Google Public DNS, OpenDNS
  • Thin Client - A computer or a computer program which depends heavily on some other computer (its server) to fulfill its traditional computational roles.
    • Chromebook - a mobile device running Google Chrome OS. The devices comprise a distinct class of personal computer falling between a pure cloud client and traditional laptop
    • Network Computers - From approximately 1996 to 2000, Oracles market a range of diskless desktop computer devices. The virtues of the network computer's diskless design and use of inexpensive components and software, were cheaper and easier to manage than standard fat client desktops.
    • WebTV - A thin client which uses a television for display (rather than a computer monitor), and the online service that supports it.
  • Web Services - A software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.

Entertainment/Gaming
  • Casual Gaming - A video game targeted at or used by a mass audience of casual gamers.
  • Cloud Gaming - A type of online gaming that allows direct and on-demand streaming of games onto a computer, similar to video on demand, through the use of a thin client, in which the actual game is stored on the operator's or game company's server and is streamed directly to computers accessing the server through the client.
  • Gamification - The adding of leader boards, badges, and other achievement systems to games, applications and social networking applications.
    • Example: Gowalla, Foursquare, etc.
  • Internet Radio - Music streaming over the Internet is sometimes referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means.
  • Internet Connected TV (Smart TV) - A phrase used to describe the trend of integration of the internet and Web features into modern television sets and set-top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these television sets / set-top boxes.
    • Example:Google TV, Apple TV, etc.
  • MMOG (Massively Multiplayer Online Game) - A mult-iplayer video game which is capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously.
    • Examples:World of Warcraft, Everquest, etc.
  • Online Currencies (aka Gold Farming) - Playing a massively multi-player online game to acquire in-game currency, e.g. gold. This is then usually sold, typically against the wishes of the game's operator, to other players.  There is also a real virtual currency called Bitcoin that is causing a lot of controversy.
    • Example: World of Warcraft, Everquest, etc.
  • Online Gambling - Any type gambling over the Internet.
  • Online Music Storage - Several companies such as: Amazon, Google, and Apple are currently competing to store people's music collection online so that they can listen to it anywhere.
    • Example: Amazon Cloud Player, Google Music, Apple iCloud, etc.
  • Pornography - The portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter.  This category of "entertainment", has standardize technology and often created trends that are adapted by other industries.
  • Social Network Gaming - A type of online game that is played through social networks, and typically features multiplayer and asynchronous game play mechanics.
    • Example:Farmville, etc.
  • Virtual Goods - Non-physical objects purchased for use in online communities or online games.  These items have intrinsic value and are tangible to the people own them or desire to acquire them.
    • Example: World of Warcraft, Everquest, etc.

Legal/Government
  • Cybersquatting - Registering, trafficking in, or using a domain name with bad faith intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to someone else. The cybersquatter then offers to sell the domain to the person or company who owns a trademark contained within the name at an inflated price.
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) - an international non-profit digital rights advocacy and legal organization based in the United States.
  • eGovernment - A digital interaction between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses/commerce/eCommerce (G2B), and between government agencies (G2G), Government-to-Religious Movements/Church (G2R), Government-to-Households (G2H).
  • Government Censorship - The suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the general body of people as determined by a government, media outlet, or other controlling body.
  • Industry Certifications - ISO is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations
  • Internet Piracy - The unauthorized or prohibited use of works under copyright, infringing the copyright holder's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works.
  • Net Neutrality - A principle which advocates no restrictions by Internet service providers or governments on consumers' access to networks that participate in the internet.
  • Organized Crime - A transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals for the purpose of engaging in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit.
  • Patent Troll - A person or company that enforces its patents against one or more alleged infringers in a manner considered unduly aggressive or opportunistic, often with no intention to manufacture or market the patented invention.
  • Regulatory Compliance - The goal that corporations or public agencies aspire to in their efforts to ensure that personnel are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws and regulations.
  • Sales Tax - A consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale.  

Popular Failed Technologies
  • Alternative DNS root - The official DNS root is administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). In addition, several organizations operate alternative DNS roots (often referred to as alt roots). These alternative domain name systems operate their own root nameservers and administer their own specific name spaces consisting of custom top-level domains.
  • Free ISP - Free ISPs are Internet Service Providers (ISPs) which provide service free of charge. Many free ISPs display advertisements while the user is connected; like commercial television, in a sense they are selling the users' attention to the advertiser.
  • Internet Keyword System - A multilingual keyword-based naming system for the Internet that would translate keywords typed into the address bar of Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser to URLs, that would access the page registered by the owner of the RealNames keyword.  For example, you could type brand name like APPLE instead of typing http://www.apple.com.
  • iSmell - a computer peripheral device developed by DigiScents in 2001. The prototype connected to a personal computer via USB or serial port and was designed to emit a smell when a user visited a web site or opened an email.
  • Paid Inclusion - A search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. This was a popular trend for a few years but died out because the controversy it created and users didn't trust the search results.
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