Below is a list of some command line network utilities that come with Windows that you can use for troubleshooting some basic network problems. The problem with these utilities is that they're not very intuitive until you learn to understand what you're looking at.
The primary use of them is to find out if different parts of your computer's network subsystems are working properly. For example if you're able to PING a remote computer, then you know that your computer is able to talk to it and that it's able to talk back to you. The IPCONFIG command is handy for finding out information about your computer's TCP/IP information, such as your IP address.
In order to access these utilities you must use the MS-DOS command prompt. To access the command prompt, from the Run... command under the Start menu, type CMD and press Enter. To exit the command prompt, close the window or type EXIT and press enter.
Example : ping example.com
Preforms a basic network test to check communication with a remote device.
Example: traceroute example.com
Shows the path and the number of routers (aka 'network hops') that the data passes through to arrive to the destination, if a connection is broken, this will show where it could be happening.
Example : ifconfig
Shows the basic TCP/IP network configuration for the computer, such as the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
Example: nslookup example.com
Displays the remote IP address assigned to a domain name based on the DNS information. This is a good test to make sure that the DNS connection is working properly.
Below is an example of the output:
Example: netstat -nt
Displays the current TCP/IP based connections established on the computer. This is handy to see the remote TCP/IP connections the system is using.
TELNET [hostname] [port]
Example: telnet example.com 80
Provides a simple terminal session with another computer to perform different tasks, such as remote device administration or running text based applications. This utility can also be used for doing basic troubleshooting on HTTP, SMTP, and other text based services.
Example: arp -a
Shows and manages the local computer's address translation tables
Example: nbtstat -n
Shows protocol statistics for NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP) connections.
Example: netsh interface show interface
Manages local or remote network configurations.
Example: net view
Displays or configures advanced network and system settings.
Example: nltest /query
Tests the secure channels between a Windows computer in a domain and domain controllers.
Example: pathping example.com
Functions similarly to TRACERT command but also reports information about network latency and loss at each router.
Displays the MAC addresses for the NIC(s) attached to the computer.
Shows the network name of the local computer.
Example: route print
Displays and manages the local computers network routing tables.
There are several more network utilities that are available, but these are the ones that you will use the most.