Digital Computer Age

Technology was forever changed by the invention of the transistor, it allow computers and other device to be created smaller, cheaper, faster and more reliable.  Important technologies and concepts were invented during this time like the integrated circuit, early networking concepts and devices like the IMPs (which were early Internet routers), etc.

The Digital Computer Age Begins
1947    Transistor is created by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & William Shockley
1948    Norbert Wiener published "Cybernetics," a major influence on later research into artificial intelligence.
1948    Manchester Baby is built by Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
1949    EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), the first computer with a "stored program".
1950    ERA 1101, created by Engineering Research Associates of Minneapolis was an early commercially produced computer.
1951    UNIVAC, an early commercial computer, built by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly.
1952    The A-0 Compiler is create by Grace Hopper.  It's considered to be the first compiler.
1952    IBM 726, one of the first practical high-speed magnetic tape systems for electronic digital computers.
1953    IBM 701, IBM's first commercially available computer
1953    Jay Forrester at MIT installed magnetic core memory on the Whirlwind computer.
1954    IBM 650 magnetic drum calculator, is considered the first mass-produced computer.
1954    The silicon-based junction transistor, created by Gordon Teal of Texas Instruments Inc., brought the price of this component down to $2.50.
1955    TRADIC, At AT&T Bell Laboratories announced the first fully transistorized computer.
1956    TX-0, First general purpose, programmable computer built with transistors, created at MIT Lincoln Laboratories
1956    IBM 305 RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control), which consisted of 50 magnetically coated metal platters with 5 million bytes of data.
1957    FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator), the first successful high level programming language, created by John Backus & IBM.
1957    Digital Equipment Corp (DEC) is created by a group of engineers led by Ken Olsen left MIT´s Lincoln Laboratory.
1958    NEC of Japan built the country's first electronic computer, known as the NEAC 1101.
1958    SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment), linked hundreds of radar stations in the United States and Canada in the first large-scale computer communications network.
1958    Jack Kilby created the first integrated circuit at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material.
1959    MIT´s Servomechanisms Laboratory demonstrated computer-assisted manufacturing.
1959    Jean Hoerni created the Planar process, invented at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., protects transistor junctions with a layer of oxide.
1959    IBM 7000, a series mainframes were the company's first transistorized computers.
1959    IBM 1401, the first high-volume, stored-program, core-memory, transistorized mainframe computer.
1959    COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) is created.
1959    ERMA (Electronic Recording Method of Accounting) a computer-readable font allowed Bank of America to digitize checking.
1959    DAC-1 is first CAD (Computer Aided Design) program is released.
1960    DEC released the PDP-1 which sold for $120,000.
1960    AT&T Dataphone, was the first commercial modem, it converted digital computer data to analog signals for transmission across its long distance network.
1960    LISP was the first computer language designed for writing artificial intelligence programs.
1961    UNIMATE, the first industrial robot, was first utilized by General Motors.
1961    IBM 1301 Disk Storage Unit is released, its maximum capacity was 28 million characters.
1962    Virtual memory was created by a team at the University of Manchester on its Atlas computer under the leadership of Tom Kilburn
1962    IBM 1311 Disk Storage Drive, the first disk drive with a removable disk pack, each pack weighed about ten pounds, held six disks, and had a capacity of 2 million characters.
1962    Ivan Sutherland uses the TX-2 to write Sketchpad, the origin of graphical programs for computer-aided design.
1962    J.C.R. Licklider writes memos about his Intergalactic Network concept, where everyone on the globe is interconnected and can access programs and data at any site from anywhere.
1963    Tandy Radio Shack is founded. 
1963    Syncom, the first synchronous communication satellite, is launched.
1963    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) permitted machines from different manufacturers to exchange data.
1964    Computer mouse & windows concepts were created by Douglas Engelbart
1964    BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), the first 'general purpose' computer language.
1964    CDC's 6600 supercomputer, performed up to 3 million instructions per second, it was designed by Seymour Cray.
1964    IBM's SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment) reservation system, was set up for American Airlines.
1965    Larry Roberts and Thomas Marill created the first wide-area network by connecting the TX-2 at MIT to the Q-32 via a dedicated telephone line with acoustic couplers.
1965    IBM System/360, the first computer to offer machine compatibility across the product line.
1965    Commodore Business Machines (CBM) is founded by Jack Tramiel.
1965    DEC introduced the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer.
1965    DENDRAL is the first expert system, or program designed to execute the accumulated expertise of specialists.
1965    Simula was one of the first object-oriented languages, which groups data and instructions into blocks called objects.
1967    IBM CP-67, the first virtual machine operating system developed for the IBM System/360-67
1967    LOGO as a computer language for children, was designed by Seymour Papert.
1968    Marvin Minsky developed the Tentacle Arm, which moved like an octopus.
1968    Data General Corp. (former DEC employee), created the Nova computer with 32 kilobytes of memory.
1969    ARPANET starts to be developed US Government, DoD (Department of Defense)
1969    Stanford Arm create Victor Scheinman´s was the first successful electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm.
1969    Frank Heart leads a team to create the software that will run the IMPs (Interface Message Processors) utilizing Honeywell DDP-516 (these early Internet routers).
1969    First host-to-host ARPANET connection from UCLA to SRI, is made on October 29, 1969. The first 'Log-In' crashes the SRI host, but the next attempt works.
1969    The RS-232-C standard is formalized, this allows computers and peripheral devices to transmit information serially to each other.
1970    SRI's "Shakey" became the first mobile robot controlled by artificial intelligence.
1970    IBM System/370, the first computer using a main memory made entirely of monolithic circuits.
1970    UNIX OS was created by Ken Thomson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Laboratories on a DEC minicomputer.
1970    Intel 1103, the world's first available dynamic RAM chip.
1970    First computer scanner was used by Kroger's supermarket outside Cincinnati
1970    Xerox opens Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).
1971    The Network Working Group completes the Telnet protocol.
1971    Kenbak-1, the first personal computer, was advertised for $750 in Scientific American.
1971    Intel 4004, the first microprocessor.
1971    8" floppy disk, was created by Alan Shugart & IBM
1971    First speech recognition software was developed by IBM
1972    DARPA created ILLIAC IV, at NASA´s Ames Research Center. The early large-scale array super-computer.
1972    Intel 8008 CPU, The first 8-bit microprocessor.  This processor was the foundation of the microcomputer revolution.
1972    The "C" programming language is developed.
1972    First e-mail program was developed Ray Tomlinson of BBN.
1972    Hewlett-Packard announced the HP-35 calculator
1973    SuperPaint from Xerox PARC was the first digital computer drawing system and the ancestor of all modern paint programs.
1974    Alto Computer was the first computer to have GUI, mouse, and Ethernet, created by Robert Metcalfe & Xerox PARC
1973    TCP/IP protocol suite was developed by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) for ARPANET
1973    Westworld was the first movie to incorporate real computer graphics in it.
1973    Steve Wozniak built his "blue box" a tone generator to make free phone calls.

Computer Pioneers - Pioneer Computers Part 2

Video Description: "Computer pioneer Gordon Bell hosts this two-part program on the evolution of electronic computing from its pre-World War II origins through the development of the first commercial computers. His narration traces the development of the stored program computer architecture which remains the foundation of todays modern computers.

In Part 2 Vintage films and first hand accounts enliven the stories of the ENIAC and the three lines of computing machines descended from it: the Eckert-Mauchly EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC; Maurice Wilkes EDSAC; and John Von Neumanns IAS machines and their clones, the ILLIAC, MANIAC, etc.
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